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Wednesday 01 June 2005

Prevention of delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting after moderately high to highly emetogenic chemotherapy: comparison of ondansetron, prochlorperazine, and dexamethasone.

By: Lindley C, Goodin S, McCune J, Kane M, Amamoo MA, Shord S, Pham T, Yowell S, Laliberte K, Schell M, Bernard S, Socinski MA.

Am J Clin Oncol 2005 Jun;28(3):270-6

The purpose of this article is to assess the comparative antiemetic efficacy of prochlorperazine, ondansetron, and dexamethasone in the prevention of delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) after moderately high to highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Cancer patients (n = 232) receiving moderately high to highly emetogenic chemotherapy were randomized to 1 of 3 treatments: 15 mg prochlorperazine spansules twice daily; 8 mg ondansetron tablets twice daily; or 8 mg dexamethasone tablets twice daily on days 2 through 5. All patients received 24 mg ondansetron and 20 mg dexamethasone orally before chemotherapy. Daily assessment (days 1 through 5) included the number of episodes of retching and vomiting, severity of nausea, restlessness, difficulty concentrating and fatigue, treatment satisfaction, and overall quality of life (measured using a 10-cm VAS). The Functional Living Index-Emesis (FLIE) was completed on day 5. Other side effects attributed to antiemetic therapy were recorded daily. For acute CINV, total control, defined as no vomiting, retching, nausea <1 cm on a 10-cm visual analog scale, and no administration of rescue medications, was achieved in 78% in the overall group and was not significantly different in the patients randomized to the 3 treatment arms for delayed CINV. Delayed CINV was reported by 43% to 57% of patients, with the highest incidence reported on day 3. For delayed CINV, patients receiving prochlorperazine reported the lowest average nausea score on days 2 to 5, whereas patients receiving ondansetron reported the highest nausea score (P = 0.05). No statistically significant differences in CINV or side effects of antiemetic therapy were noted between treatment groups on days 2 to 5. For patients similar to those included in this study, there does not appear to be a clinically important difference in efficacy, adverse effects, or treatment satisfaction among dexamethasone, prochlorperazine, and ondansetron in the doses used in these delayed CINV regimens on days 2 to 5 in this study.

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